By John R. Josephson, Susan G. Josephson
In casual phrases, abductive reasoning consists of inferring the easiest or such a lot believable clarification from a given set of proof or info. This quantity offers new principles approximately inferential and information-processing foundations for wisdom and sure bet. The authors argue that wisdom arises from adventure by way of procedures of abductive inference, not like the view that it arises noninferentially, or that deduction and inductive generalization are adequate to account for wisdom. The ebook tells the tale of six generations of more and more refined customary abduction machines and the invention of reasoning thoughts that make it computationally possible to shape well-justified composite explanatory hypotheses, regardless of the specter of combinatorial explosion. This e-book can be of significant curiosity to researchers in AI, cognitive technology, and philosophy of technological know-how.
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Additional info for Abductive Inference: Computation, Philosophy, Technology
Suggested by William Lycan. I am ignoring here the so called "Gettier problem" with these conditions, but see Harman (1965) for an argument that successful abductions resolve the Gettier problem anyway. 30 ABDUCTIVE INFERENCE 9 For a brief summary of deductive and other models of explanation see Bhaskar (1981), and for a history of recent philosophical accounts of explanation, see Salmon (1990). 10 For a well-developed historical account of the connections between ideas of causality and explanation see Wallace (1972, 1974).
Why is there mud on the carpet? Explanation: George did it (presumably, but not explicitly, by tracking it into the house stuck to his shoes, or something similar). Knowing that George came into the room puts me in a position to predict mud on the carpet only if I assume many questionable auxiliary assumptions about George's path and Conceptual analysis of abduction 25 the adhesive properties of mud, and so forth. If I had an ideally complete explanation of the mud on the carpet, some sort of complete causal story, then, perhaps, I would be in a position to predict the last line of the story, given all the rest; but this is an unrealistic representation of what normal explanation is like.
However, unlike AI as art, design-science AI is not interested in the mere appearance of intelligence but in the causal mechanisms that produce intelligent behavior. Design-science AI is similar to traditional science in its concern for making systems that show us new things about the phenomena of intelligence, such as reasoning and problem solving. What is design science? Design science is a new paradigm of science. There is a Kuhnian paradigm shift (Kuhn, 1970) inherent in design-science AI. Design-science AI is a science of the artifactual or the artificial.
Abductive Inference: Computation, Philosophy, Technology by John R. Josephson, Susan G. Josephson