By Marshall Cavendish
Historical Greece follows the growth of the Greeks from the early institution of farming groups round 6500 BCE, to the increase of the good city-states of Sparta and Athens, and directly to the dissolution of the empire of Alexander the good following his loss of life in 323 BCE.
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Grade point: 6 - nine
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Extra info for Ancient Greece: An Illustrated History
The state determined the percentage of the harvest that the helots had to hand over to their masters. The helots were allowed to keep the remainder of the food for themselves. A Spartan father could adopt any children he had by a helot mother, making the children Spartan citizens. From the fifth century BCE onward, helots could earn the status of freeman by fighting with the Spartans as full-fledged soldiers in wartime. In neither case did the helot acquire full Spartan civil rights. Although they were essential for the agricultural economy, helots were by no means always well treated.
See also: Mycenae and Troy (page 26) 51 SPARTA AND ATHENS TIME LINE c. 1200 BCE Twelve cities of Attica united by Theseus according to legend; form city-state of Athens. c. 950 BCE Dorian invaders settle on Eurotas Plain; over next two centuries, they form city-state of Sparta. c. 725 BCE Spartans conquer neighboring region of Messenia; numerous revolts occur during following century. c. 650 BCE Spartan state reorganized; changes credited to lawgiver named Lycurgas. c. 625 BCE Social inequality leads to unrest in Athens.
These people were SPARTA AND ATHENS SPARTA, ATHENS, AND THEIR RIVALS ea B l ac k S MACEDON Aeg THESSALY ea n M BOEOTIA Thebes Athens ARCADIA Corinth ed i te rra ne SICILY Sea AETOLIA LESBOS LYDIA Miletus an Se Syracuse MESSENIA a Sparta CRETE freemen descended from the pre-Dorian inhabitants of the region and lived on the outskirts of the polis. Most of the perioikoi were farmers, and although they had no political rights within the Spartan state, their communities were internally autonomous. In peacetime, Sparta had little interest in the settlements, but in times of war, the settlements were expected to supply soldiers.
Ancient Greece: An Illustrated History by Marshall Cavendish