By R. M. Laws
This e-book describes the tools and strategies for box experiences of the inhabitants ecology of seals on the way to assemble easy medical info and to aid in conservation efforts. The papers during this e-book make particular innovations for estimating inhabitants sizes, for learning their habit on land and at sea, and for immobilizing, taking pictures, marking, and, the place worthwhile, humanely killing seals so one can research body structure, vitamin, bioenergetics, and make age determinations.
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Additional info for Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques
Smaller than true seals. Bulls have thickening of neck and shoulders due to presence of a mane. 5 kg. Adult: male length to 200 cm; weight to 200 kg. female length to 145 cm; weight to 50 kg. A. tropicalis is smaller than A. gazella. Colour Back and sides grey to brownish, depending on length of time ashore; throat and breast creamy; belly dark gingery colour. Adult male has heavy mane round neck, shoulder and on breast - grizzled appearance due to white hairs. M. Laws Fig. 12 Antarctic fur seal characteristic attitudes.
Most species appear more tolerant of noise during high seas or strong winds perhaps due to increased levels of background noise. Occasionally, an up-wind approach may make some difference in producing disturbance with the seals becoming 'attentive' well before any normal reaction distance is reached. However, on occasions when animals are 'attentive' to the presence of a disturbance, they raise their heads and this may make counting or age/sex discriminations easier. If animals start to move in apparent response to an approach, it is sometimes possible to ease away from the direct approach and animals' exodus will cease.
Accurate measurement of the distance of individual seals from the track-line is often not possible during aerial surveys, and some form of strip transect methodology is normally employed. However, an estimate of the variation in sightings probability with distance from the track-line can be obtained by dividing the strip into a number of sectors. , 1987), or by streamers attached to the aircraft's wing struts. In both cases it is important that observers do not alter the elevation of their head relative to the markers, as this can change the strip width.
Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques by R. M. Laws