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In several other instances (the Canadian dollar, June 1962, the lira, March 1964), the rescue loans were successful. As the resources required for rescues mounted, the Bretton Woods system fell apart, a dissolution that the policies of the US, the center country compelled (Bordo and Schwartz 1999). 4. Recent Rescues Rescue loans before the 1990s were made in an attempt to prevent a devaluation or the abandonment of a pegged exchange rate by the core advanced countries. They were temporary loans, at commercial market rates, limited in magnitude, but sufficient to offset a current account 51 According to Gold (1988), the IMF is an offshoot of the ESF.

43 The measure of the severity and duration of a crisis was the extent to which the annual GDP growth rate deviated from trend on its account and then recovered. Specifically, for each country Bordo and Eichengreen calculated the growth rate in the crisis year relative to its trend 40 The countries are: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. 41 For an episode to qualify as a banking crisis, there had to be either bank runs, bank failures and the suspension of convertibility of deposits into currency (a banking panic), or else significant banking-sector problems (including failures) that are resolved by a fiscally-underwritten bank restructuring.

Both factor flows and goods flows fostered factor price equalization. Most of the convergence in real wages (70%) is explained by factor movements, especially by labor mobility, (with mobile capital as a minor player); the rest (30%) according to the Hecksher-Ohlin theorem, by international trade. These forces had important effects on the distribution of income. The massive migrations in the 1870-1914 period reduced the returns to land owners in the land scarce, labor abundant countries of Europe and at the same time worsened the income distribution in the countries of New Settlement, as unskilled immigrants competed with more established workers for jobs.

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Anzer Modelling

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